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Thank you for notifying us. The page you are attempting to access contains content that is not intended for underage readers. Johns, M. Hardcover, Pages. This item has not been rated yet. Most authors generally agree upon the translation of penalties under the Code, indicating that such penalties were likely.

Johns claims that, under the Code, plaintiffs who lost their cases did not go unpunished, especially if they purposely brought false claims. Johns moves on to criminal penalties, which are extremely harsher than we are used to. Capital punishment was inflicted on violators of the Code who were accused for theft, rape, death by assault, death caused by a bad building, [civ] and other crimes [cv] like incest, selling beer too cheaply this one is odd.

The next worst penalty was mutilation. Lastly, if you refer back to the surgeon malpractice example, note that penalties resulting from wronging a slave and penalties resulting from wronging a free man greatly differed in that they were expectedly harsher for wronging a free man. Police Force? Even so, a less reliable source [cxviii] claims that there was a police force that consisted of soldiers who were sent to shoot or arrest brigands thieves, gangs, etc.

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  6. Family Relations. All three sources agree that monogamy was prevalent, and when a man did have two wives, it was for various reasons and viewed as the exception to the general rule. A husband might have a concubine, free women, not wives, but they might have had some legal rights similar to those held by wives. Even so, under the Code, children owed great respect to their fathers.

    A well-off lady could also adopt a daughter to give her food and drink and help take care of her. Regarding ending a marriage or legal relationship, all translations of the Code display that both men and women were permitted to divorce under certain circumstances.

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    The Temple. Finances and Gifts. Temples had other land, as well as houses, that they could let. Priests and Temple Staff. Besides priests, temples had various classes of people and officials. Temple slaves were given clothing and food but were not paid for routine work.

    Political Influence. Contenau believes that the gods had limitless power over all of mankind, including the poor and even the king. Before Hammurabi, several kings trusted magicians, but, according to Johns, Hammurabi sought to end the magic. Johns states that it is not clear what responsibilities temples had to the state, but sometimes the king and his officials had to borrow the temples for military reasons.

    Furthermore, Contenau asserts that succession to the throne was not only through royal lineage, but also by nomination by the gods, a claim that is assumed through poems carved on tablets. Well, what are such teachings? I am assuming they might be what the priests say they are, and the priests were likely trained to teach certain material.


    The Army and Prisoner Slaves. The Levy. Men only had to serve for a certain number of years, thought to be six. Enslavement of Prisoners of War. An interesting idea concerning Assyrian war is that of slavery. Contenau brings up the claim of war being another excuse to enslave men, as Assyrian kings could then form a large labor force to execute their demands.

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    I could not find any research regarding whether slaves who were once POWs were permitted to marry Assyrian slaves, as regular slaves were allowed to do; however, it would be interesting, especially because the masters would then be able to acquire more slaves including wives and potential children , since slaves normally remained with their families. Furthermore, I wonder if such slaves would be freed after the deaths of their masters, just as other slaves were freed under similar circumstances.

    I have also failed to find information concerning any legal rights of prisoners of wars, but I imagine that they were provided with survival necessities, including food and drink, but, perhaps, not much else. However, it seems that Contenau formed his ideas about prisoners of war mostly from Assyrian bas-reliefs, which does not make his beliefs true artwork is often inaccurate , but only possible. However, one might agree that armies would bring back prisoners for the benefit of Babylonia or Assyria.

    The Code of Hammurabi and the recovered Babylonian and Assyrian tablets, when coupled together, are able to give us an insight into the legal systems of Babylonia and Assyria. Scholars have clearly not agreed upon all interpretations of the law, but they have not disagreed on all areas, either. Nonetheless, scholars have continued to attempt to decode the ancient Mesopotamian legal systems. Although we will never be fully aware of the Babylonian and Assyrian legal systems, at least we have thousands of clay tablets and an almost full steele code to give us an idea of what laws the ancient Mesopotamians had to follow.

    Wesleyan L.